Appendix A. Installing Third-Party Modules
Beyond the standard library of modules packaged with Python, other developers have written their own modules to extend Python’s capabilities even further. The primary way to install third-party modules is to use Python’s pip tool. This tool securely downloads and installs Python modules onto your computer from https://pypi.python.org/, the website of the Python Software Foundation. PyPI, or the Python Package Index, is a sort of free app store for Python modules.
The executable file for the pip tool is called pip on Windows and pip3 on OS X and Linux. On Windows, you can find pip at C:\Python34\Scripts\pip.exe. On OS X, it is in /Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.4/bin/pip3. On Linux, it is in /usr/bin/pip3.
While pip comes automatically installed with Python 3.4 on Windows and OS X, you must install it separately on Linux. To install pip3 on Ubuntu or Debian Linux, open a new Terminal window and enter
sudo apt-get install python3-pip. To install pip3 on Fedora Linux, enter
sudo yum install python3-pip into a Terminal window. You will need to enter the administrator password for your computer in order to install this software.
Installing Third-Party Modules
The pip tool is meant to be run from the command line: You pass it the command
install followed by the name of the module you want to install. For example, on Windows you would enter
ModuleName is the name of the module. On OS X and Linux, you’ll have to run pip3 with the
sudo prefix to grant administrative privileges to install the module. You would need to type
sudo pip3 install
If you already have the module installed but would like to upgrade it to the latest version available on PyPI, run
pip install –U
pip3 install –U
ModuleName on OS X and Linux).
After installing the module, you can test that it installed successfully by running
ModuleName in the interactive shell. If no error messages are displayed, you can assume the module was installed successfully.
You can install all of the modules covered in this book by running the commands listed next. (Remember to replace
pip3 if you’re on OS X or Linux.)
pip install send2trash
pip install requests
pip install beautifulsoup4
pip install selenium
pip install openpyxl
pip install PyPDF2
pip install python-docx (install
pip install imapclient
pip install pyzmail
pip install twilio
pip install pillow
pip install pyobjc-core (on OS X only)
pip install pyobjc (on OS X only)
pip install python3-xlib (on Linux only)
pip install pyautogui
For OS X users: The
pyobjc module can take 20 minutes or longer to install, so don’t be alarmed if it takes a while. You should also install the
pyobjc-core module first, which will reduce the overall installation time.